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INFOGRAPHIC: Global distribution and types of violence
The map charts the distribution of death rates (per 100,000) from armed violence around the world. It is important to note that violence and insecurity are often as great or greater in non-conflict or non-war settings: only six of the fourteen most violent countries were active conflict zones between 2004–09 (Iraq, Colombia, Sri Lanka, Central African Republic, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Most analyses of conflict, crime and violence tend to rely on two distinctions: organisation (whether they are interpersonal or collective actions); and, motivation (political, economic  or psychological). Research in this field, however, requires an integrated approach to be able to demonstrate the negative impact different forms of insecurity might have on development, and under what conditions. (Data source: Geneva Declaration Secretariat, Global Burden of Armed Violence 2011: Lethal Encounters). (French version)

— Abstract

Ideas and practices of development and security have evolved separately in institutional, scholarly, and non-governmental fora. This separate evolution has hampered attempts to understand how violence and physical threats to security are inter-linked with broad development processes. Recent attempts to re-think the “security-development” nexus have encountered great resistance and significant misunderstanding, on both sides of the divide. This has hindered the development of effective policies and programs to reduce violence, crime, and insecurity in ways that could promote human, social, and economic development.

This chapter presents an overview of the scope, scale, and distribution of armed violence that sets the stage for a more detailed examination the ways in which insecurity may undermine development and some programmatic responses from the development community to deal with conflict-driven insecurity.

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— Suggested Readings

Berdal, Mats R., and David Malone. (2000). Greed & grievance: economic agendas in civil wars. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Publishers. (Résumé en français disponible ici)

Cramer, Christopher. (2007). Violence in Developing Countries. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Heinemann, Alessandra and Dorte Verner (2006, Oct). “Crime and Violence in Development: A Literature Review of Latin America and the Caribbean,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4041, The World Bank, Washington, DC. [PDF 120KB]

Hettne, Björn. (2010). “Development and Security: Origins and Future,” Security Dialogue, 41(1): 31–52.

Justino, Patricia. (2006). “On the Links between Violent Conflict and Chronic Poverty: How Much Do We Really Know?” HiCN Working Paper 18, Households in Conflict Network (HiCN), Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

Schönwälder, Gerd. (2007). Public insecurity in Latin America cities: the role of municipalities. Public Insecurity in Latin America Cities: the Role of Municipalities. Canadian Consortium on Human Security, Vancouver, BC, CA.

Stern, Maria and Joakim Öjendal (2010). “Convergence? Mapping the Security–Development Nexus: Conflict, Complexity, Cacophony,” Security Dialogue, 41(1): 5–29. [PDF 130KB]

Tschirgi, Neçlâ, Michael Lund and Francesco. Mancini (2010). Security and Development: Searching for Critical Connections. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.